A history of the first and second reconstruction after the civil war in the united states

reconstruction civil war

After ten years, Congress and the radicals grew weary of federal involvement in the South. Supposedly, Radical Republicans in Congress vindictively fastened black supremacy upon the defeated Confederacy and an orgy of corruption and misgovernment followed, presided over by unscrupulous "carpetbaggers" northerners who ventured south to reap the spoils of office"scalawags" white southerners who cooperated with the Republican Party for personal gainand ignorant and childlike freed people.

A history of the first and second reconstruction after the civil war in the united states

From the war emerged the principle of a national citizenship whose members enjoyed the equal protection of the laws. Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected and refused to seat new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before. Southern opponents such as Senators Russell and Eastland, realizing that some kind of legislation was imminent, slowed and weakened reform through the amendment process. The bill specified that civil rights workers would be afforded similar protections when serving as advocates for those trying to exercise their rights. Benefitting from Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress, the Johnson administration instituted immigration reforms and created federally funded programs to stimulate urban development, bolster consumer protection, strengthen environmental regulations, fund education programs, and expand the social safety net by providing health coverage through Medicare and Medicaid. Shortly thereafter, Congress approved the 14th Amendment, which put the principle of birthright citizenship into the Constitution and forbade states from depriving any citizen of the "equal protection of the laws. At Colfax, Louisiana, in , scores of black militiamen were killed after surrendering to armed whites intent on seizing control of local government.

Bruce in the U. Of the 56 men who signed the American Declaration of Independence intwo were future presidents.

Reconstruction era summary

The House passed the measure by a wide margin, to 97, though southern opponents managed to excise voting protections from the original language. On April 4—the day before the Rules Committee was scheduled to vote on whether to send the bill to the House Floor or to send it to conference—Dr. Birmingham Police Commissioner Eugene Bull Connor unleashed police dogs and high-powered hoses on the peaceful protesters. The Reconstruction Acts of divided the South into five military districts and outlined how new governments, based on manhood suffrage without regard to race , were to be established. Congress promptly repassed its laws over his veto. As a result, a system of sharecropping was developed, in which landowners broke up large plantations and rented small lots to the freedmen and their families. In the months before voters went to the polls, these Ku Klux Klan members murdered about a thousand people.

The second large group, scalawagsor native-born white Republicans, included some businessmen and planters, but most were nonslaveholding small farmers from the Southern up-country.

When southern whites opted for military occupation rather than registering black voters, Congress put the military in charge of the process. Sims, U.

reconstruction history definition

Andrew Johnson, as Lincoln's successor, proposed a very lenient policy toward the South. Thus began the period of Radical or Congressional Reconstruction, which lasted until the end of the last Southern Republican governments in The act prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of approximately 80 percent of the housing in the U.

Reconstruction era definition

An additional amendment prohibited Native American tribal governments from restricting the exercise of specific constitutional rights on their lands. But the Union also had a far greater task. Allwright, U. Even as the Republican Party abandoned its earlier idealism, the loyalties created by the war helped it retain national dominance well into the twentieth century. Kennedy administration. The second large group, "scalawags" or native-born white Republicans, included some businessmen and planters but most were non-slaveholding small farmers from the Southern upcountry. A large number became laundresses. Above, Parks rides on a desegregated bus. In Smith v. Representative Joseph D. Even in untouched areas, the lack of maintenance and repair, the absence of new equipment, the heavy over-use, and the deliberate relocation of equipment by the Confederates from remote areas to the war zone ensured the system would be ruined at war's end. The series will conclude with a focus on both the flowering of African American art, music, literature, and culture as tools of resistance in the struggle against Jim Crow racism and the surge of political activism that marked the launch of such iconic civil rights organizations as the National Association of Colored Women, the Niagara Movement, and the NAACP, all at a time when black political power had been blunted and the dream of an interracial democracy seemed impossibly out of reach. Supreme Court in , preparing the way for a series of landmark civil rights cases decided by the liberal Warren court. The issues were multiple: who should decide, Congress or the president? Slavery, in practical terms, died with the end of the Civil War.

Carr upheld lawsuits that challenged districts apportioned to enforce voting discrimination against minorities. In the north and west, too, states began to rewrite their constitutions, once again limiting the right to vote to propertied white men.

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Civil War and Reconstruction,