An essay on the substance quinine
In Summary The sometimes dramatic results of treatment of intermittent fevers with Cinchona bark dates back to the 17th century, and bark was used effectively throughout the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Bulletin of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations The bark is cheaper than bark of Cinchona. Like arsenic Whorton , quinine became a kind of panacea. These drug combinations will need further evaluation to confirm these findings and may offer a solution to the compliance problems associated with seven-day courses of quinine. Later on, there was some variation in treatment protocols depending on the Plasmodium species targeted, and discussion about dosage continued Marchoux ; but there was actually little change in protocols over time. In addition, as arsenic and arsenic derivatives had long been used as anti-malarials, organic derivatives of arsenic Atoxyl and Salvarsan developed to treat syphilis Williams were also tested in malaria patients Marchoux By contrast, it was not possible to make similarly confident causal inferences about the effects of most other interventions, whether purported advances in treating malaria, or measures to control and prevent malaria at the population level. The diffuse resistance of the general population to quinine prophylaxis is not documented in the Italian medical writings, but it is in a later report by the League of Nations Malaria Commission A rough computation based on more accurate prescriptions for the preparation of bark powder potions for fevers Jourdan suggests daily doses equivalent to about 1 gram of quinine, distributed in several doses. Weekly administration of quinine 1 gr , arsenic and iron one spoon daily, 0. He also suggested, however, that such experiments be conducted in Germany, where longer term follow up would be easier p But where could he find it? Report on the climate and the principal diseases of the African station.
However, it is unclear whether supplies will be sufficient for the thousands of patients in need. Until recently, the available formulations of injectable artesunate that have been used in several clinical trials were not produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices GMP and this could be a problem for African countries relying on donors who do not permit purchase of non-GMP artesunate.
Planned, alternate allocation to treatment comparison groups began to be used in India at the end of the 19th century in controlled evaluations of interventions to prevent and treat cholera and plague Choksy ; Haffkine ; Chalmers et al.
Over the years, quinine has been the mainstay in the treatment of severe malaria and still remains the first line drug in most African countries [ 24 ].
In addition, as arsenic and arsenic derivatives had long been used as anti-malarials, organic derivatives of arsenic Atoxyl and Salvarsan developed to treat syphilis Williams were also tested in malaria patients Marchoux Facts like these are not to be mistaken; the previous pages of this report contain many others of nearly equal value. Koch listened to criticism. Science History Institute At Vicksburg, the disease-ravaged Union navy and army failed in its first attempt to capture the strategically important Southern city on the Mississippi River. My procedure is directed to towards the parasites in the infected men. In Italy, the traditional flavoured wine Barolo Chinato is infused with quinine and local herbs and is served as a digestif. By far the most complete information from 72 patients alternately allocated to quinine or quinidine was supplied by William Fletcher from the Institute for Medical Research at Kuala Lumpur, in the Malay States Fletcher Malaria and Quinine A single female Anopheles mosquito was born in a stagnant pool of water, emerged, and joined millions of others following soldiers in camp and on the march during the warm summer. In several instances, three or even four forms of treatment were conducted during the same period, the alternative case method being used. As the sulphate of quinine is more certain in its action, infinitely less nauseous than bark, and therefore less objectionable to fastidious people, it should invariably be preferred for exhibition: whether it be given in wine, water, or rum is of no great consequence: the latter will generally be the most acceptable to seamen, although they will seldom object to it in wine. Researches on the treatment of benign tertian fever. In , Acton reported his research on the treatment of malaria in India using different quinine alkaloids. Currently the WHO recommends the use of quinine plus clindamycin for treating malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy, as the safety of artemisinin compounds during this period is not yet established [ 23 ]. Stupart, Esq. In the same article, he reports prophylaxis using a combination of salts of iron, arsenic, and quinine, promoted by industry and administered in to railway workers in Foggia, south Italy.
Case studies published after report hearing loss, headaches, vertigo, disturbances of vision, bradycardia, and digestive problems.
Presently, it is not possible to elucidate advantages associated with the use of any particular anti-malarial drug for HIV or TB infected populations.
He was fascinated by the medicinal applications of plants, and his wide-ranging experience as a physician equipped him with the analytical skills required for the job.
The enduring beneficial effects of Cinchona bark and quinine over three and a half centuries is remarkable.
At least men should be treated, and the parasites must be of the same species and found microscopically in every case. The outcome of the treatment was compared to previous experience of treatment with bark extracts, or to what was known to occur in the absence of treatment.
based on 11 review