Essential fatty acids
The omega-6s and omega-3s are essential. Although seafood is a good source of long-chain omega-3 PUFA, health benefits associated with fish consumption could be attributed to the presence of other nutritional factors e.
There was also no significant effect on HbA1cfasting glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, or a measure of endothelial function.
Essential fatty acids benefits
No moderating effects of dose or prematurity status were observed. Essential fatty acid deficiency has also been found to occur in patients with chronic fat malabsorption 39 and in patients with cystic fibrosis Preterm infants: A few trials have been specifically conducted in preterm infants. In contrast, recently published meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies found little evidence of inverse associations between fish consumption and either CHD or stroke 96, A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in women with high-risk pregnancies found that supplementation with long-chain PUFA did not affect pregnancy duration or the overall incidence of premature births birth before 37 weeks' gestation but decreased the incidence of early premature births birth before 34 weeks' gestation; 2 trials, participants EFAs may help improve these conditions, and EFA supplementation has been studied in hundreds of clinical trials. A review and advisory from the American Heart Association found no evidence to suggest a benefit of long-chain omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality in patients with or at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus , the prevention of CHD in patients with atherosclerotic disease e. They can regulate gene expression directly by interacting with transcription factors or indirectly by influencing membrane lipid composition and cell signaling pathways. Yet, replacing dietary saturated fatty acids with omega-6 PUFA was consistently found to lower total blood cholesterol concentrations 87, A meta-analysis of trials found evidence to suggest that omega-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy reduced the overall risk of prematurity and the risk of early premature births, increased gestational age at delivery and birth weight, and had no effect on the risks of perinatal death and low Apgar scores at 1 minute post birth Particular fatty acids are still needed at critical life stages e. Unfortunately, the exact requirements for individual EFAs are not clearly defined, despite the large volume of literature available on the subject.
Food and Drug Administration FDAfinding the evidence suggestive, but not conclusive, allowed a qualified claim linking omega-3 fatty acids to a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. Studies in rodents have revealed significant impairment of n-3 PUFA deficiency on learning and memory 42, 43prompting research in humans to assess the impact of omega-3 PUFA on cognitive development and cognitive decline see Cognitive and visual development and Alzheimer's disease.
EFAs increase the absorption of vitamins and minerals; nourish the skin, hair and nails; promote proper nerve functioning; help produce hormones; ensure normal growth and development; and prevent and treat disease.
Isoprostanes Isoprostanes are prostaglandin -like compounds that are formed by non- enzymaticfree radical -induced oxidation of any PUFA with three or more double bonds Figure 4 However, the fatty acids derived from them are also generally considered essential.
Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency At least one case of isolated omega-3 fatty acid deficiency has been reported. It has been proposed that essential fatty acid deficiency may play a role in the pathology of protein-energy malnutrition
Non essential fatty acids
The most common oxylipins are eicosanoids that encompass numerous bioactive lipid mediators derived from carbon "eicosa-" AA. The working group also recognized that there is too much trans fat in the food supply, and recommended an upper limit of 2 grams per day. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Before the omega-3 index can be used in routine clinical evaluation, however, clinical reference values in the population must be established Animal sources vary widely, both with the animal's feed and that the EFA makeup varies markedly with fats from different body parts. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in women with high-risk pregnancies found that supplementation with long-chain PUFA did not affect pregnancy duration or the overall incidence of premature births birth before 37 weeks' gestation but decreased the incidence of early premature births birth before 34 weeks' gestation; 2 trials, participants In other cases, PUFA regulate the abundance of transcription factors inside the cell's nucleus
based on 109 review